Weight-loss surgeries are commonly known as ‘bariatric surgery ‘, an operation done on the digestive system that helps individuals suffering due to obesity to lose weight. Some bariatric surgery helps to restrict calorie intake by reducing the size of the stomach while some modify the structure of the stomach to make functional changes to the digestive tract which helps obese individuals lose weight and combat obesity-related medical conditions. But which is the safest option? Keep reading to find out.
Who Can Undergo Weight-loss Surgery?
Bariatric surgeries are helpful for people with obesity, as it reduces the capacity of their digestion and appetite. Usually, a person with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 30 is considered obese. Bariatric surgery is suitable for people with a BMI of around 40 or above. People having a BMI ranging between 30 to 40 and diagnosed with medical conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, fatty liver, or sleep apnea can undergo weight-loss surgical procedures.
Types of Weight-loss Surgeries
Surgical methods can be either restrictive, meaning, it reduces the amount of food intake, or they can be both restrictive as well as malabsorptive, which restricts the food intake along with interfering with digestion.
1. Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding
This surgery method involves a restrictive technique that helps obese people to lose weight. A gastric band made up of silicone is wrapped around the top region of the stomach to divide it into two sections. The smaller portion comprises the main stomach and the small region between the two sections causes the food to move slowly from the top section to the bottom section.
Due to the reduced size of the stomach, the patient feels fuller too soon. The band helps to restrict the quantity of food that can be consumed in one go. It slows down the process of digestion. The band is an adjustable one, which can be fastened or relaxed to suit your needs. This surgical operation is fully reversible.
Safety Information: Although this form of surgical procedure has been performed for several years, it is not much in practice nowadays, as it was observed that the patient who underwent this form of surgery experienced inadequate weight loss and, it involves a high risk of long-term complications.
2. Sleeve Gastrectomy
This is a type of restrictive laparoscopic surgery, which involves the removal of 75% to 85% of the stomach to reduce its size and make it into a small pouch. Due to the reduction in the size of the stomach, the capacity of food intake decreases making the stomach become full too soon. However, absorption of nutrients does not get affected post-surgery.
After this surgery, stomach hormone production will get reduced which decreases the appetite and curbs hunger. Also, patients need to strictly follow a specified diet plan. The recovery time is quite fast as it takes a few weeks to bounce back. Also, this operation is not reversible.
Safety Information: This surgical technique does lead to side effects which can be controlled to some extent. It is also helpful in recovery from chronic medical conditions like type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure.
3. Gastric Bypass
This type of surgery is also referred to as ‘Roux-en-Y’ gastric bypass. In this method, the surgeon staples the stomach to create a small pouch and connects it directly to a piece of the small intestine, bypassing the remaining portion of the stomach. The surgical procedure helps to reduce appetite and you will need less food. Gastric bypass induces malabsorption by making changes in the gut hormones and bacteria. It limits calorie intake.
Safety Information: Reversing this process is difficult, however, it can be carried out if there is a medical emergency.
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